Pro-aperiodic monoids via saturated models

Samuel J. v. Gool, Benjamin Steinberg

We apply Stone duality and model theory to study the structure theory of free pro-aperiodic monoids. Stone duality implies that elements of the free pro-aperiodic monoid may be viewed as elementary equivalence classes of pseudofinite words. Model theory provides us with saturated words in each such class, i.e., words in which all possible factorizations are realized. We give several applications of this new approach, including a solution to the word problem for $\omega$-terms that avoids using McCammond's normal forms, as well as new proofs and extensions of other structural results concerning free pro-aperiodic monoids.

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