CONE: Zero-Calibration Accurate Confidence Estimation for Indoor Localization Systems

Rizanne Elbakly, Moustafa Youssef

Accurate estimation of the confidence of an indoor localization system is crucial for a number of applications including crowd-sensing applications, map-matching services, and probabilistic location fusion techniques; all of which lead to an enhanced user experience. Current approaches for quantifying the output accuracy of a localization system in real-time either do not provide a distance metric, require an extensive training process, and/or are tailored to a specific localization system. In this paper, we present the design, implementation, and evaluation of CONE: a novel calibration-free accurate confidence estimation system that can work in real-time with any location determination system. CONE builds on a sound theoretical model that allows it to trade the required user confidence with tight bound on the estimated confidence radius. We also introduce a new metric for evaluating confidence estimation systems that can capture new aspects of their performance. Evaluation of CONE on Android phones in a typical testbed using the iBeacons BLE technology with a side-by-side comparison with traditional confidence estimation techniques shows that CONE can achieve a consistent median absolute error difference accuracy of less than 2.7m while estimating the user position more than 80% of the time within the confidence circle. This is significantly better than the state-of-the-art confidence estimation systems that are tailored to the specific localization system in use. Moreover, CONE does not require any calibration and therefore provides a scalable and ubiquitous confidence estimation system for pervasive applications.

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