Energy Efficiency in Two-Tiered Wireless Sensor Networks

Jun Guo, Erdem Koyuncu, Hamid Jafarkhani

We study a two-tiered wireless sensor network (WSN) consisting of $N$ access points (APs) and $M$ base stations (BSs). The sensing data, which is distributed on the sensing field according to a density function $f$, is first transmitted to the APs and then forwarded to the BSs. Our goal is to find an optimal deployment of APs and BSs to minimize the average weighted total, or Lagrangian, of sensor and AP powers. For $M=1$, we show that the optimal deployment of APs is simply a linear transformation of the optimal $N$-level quantizer for density $f$, and the sole BS should be located at the geometric centroid of the sensing field. Also, for a one-dimensional network and uniform $f$, we determine the optimal deployment of APs and BSs for any $N$ and $M$. Moreover, to numerically optimize node deployment for general scenarios, we propose one- and two-tiered Lloyd algorithms and analyze their convergence properties. Simulation results show that, when compared to random deployment, our algorithms can save up to 79\% of the power on average.

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