Restoring STM images via Sparse Coding: noise and artifact removal

João P. Oliveira, Ana Bragança, José Bioucas-Dias, Mário Figueiredo, Luís Alcácer, Jorge Morgado, Quirina Ferreira

In this article, we present a denoising algorithm to improve the interpretation and quality of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images. Given the high level of self-similarity of STM images, we propose a denoising algorithm by reformulating the true estimation problem as a sparse regression, often termed sparse coding. We introduce modifications to the algorithm to cope with the existence of artifacts, mainly dropouts, which appear in a structured way as consecutive line segments on the scanning direction. The resulting algorithm treats the artifacts as missing data, and the estimated values outperform those algorithms that substitute the outliers by a local filtering. We provide code implementations for both Matlab and Gwyddion.

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