Parallel Stream Processing Against Workload Skewness and Variance

Junhua Fang, Rong Zhang, Tom Z. J. Fu, Zhenjie Zhang, Aoying Zhou, Junhua Zhu

Key-based workload partitioning is a common strategy used in parallel stream processing engines, enabling effective key-value tuple distribution over worker threads in a logical operator. While randomized hashing on the keys is capable of balancing the workload for key-based partitioning when the keys generally follow a static distribution, it is likely to generate poor balancing performance when workload variance occurs on the incoming data stream. This paper presents a new key-based workload partitioning framework, with practical algorithms to support dynamic workload assignment for stateful operators. The framework combines hash-based and explicit key-based routing strategies for workload distribution, which specifies the destination worker threads for a handful of keys and assigns the other keys with the hashing function. When short-term distribution fluctuations occur to the incoming data stream, the system adaptively updates the routing table containing the chosen keys, in order to rebalance the workload with minimal migration overhead within the stateful operator. We formulate the rebalance operation as an optimization problem, with multiple objectives on minimizing state migration costs, controlling the size of the routing table and breaking workload imbalance among worker threads. Despite of the NP-hardness nature behind the optimization formulation, we carefully investigate and justify the heuristics behind key (re)routing and state migration, to facilitate fast response to workload variance with ignorable cost to the normal processing in the distributed system. Empirical studies on synthetic data and real-world stream applications validate the usefulness of our proposals and prove the huge advantage of our approaches over state-of-the-art solutions in the literature.

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