This article introduces a Tensor Network Kalman filter, which can estimate state vectors that are exponentially large without ever having to explicitly construct them. The Tensor Network Kalman filter also easily accommodates the case where several different state vectors need to be estimated simultaneously. The key lies in rewriting the standard Kalman equations as tensor equations and then implementing them using Tensor Networks, which effectively transforms the exponential storage cost and computational complexity into a linear one. We showcase the power of the proposed framework through an application in recursive nonlinear system identification of high-order discrete-time multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Volterra systems. The identification problem is transformed into a linear state estimation problem wherein the state vector contains all Volterra kernel coefficients and is estimated using the Tensor Network Kalman filter. The accuracy and robustness of the scheme are demonstrated via numerical experiments, which show that updating the Kalman filter estimate of a state vector of length $10^9$ and its covariance matrix takes about 0.007s on a standard desktop computer in Matlab.