Compared to former mobile networks, Long Term Evolution (LTE) offers higher transfer speeds, significantly lower latencies and a widespread availability, qualifying LTE for a wide range of different applications and services in the field of conventional Human-to-Human (H2H) as well as fast growing Vehicle-To-X (V2X) and Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) communications. As a result, a steady growth of mobile data traffic, which is reflected in an increased interaction between different traffic classes, can be observed. In order to ensure timely transmissions of time-critical data in the future, we propose the novel Payload-Size and Deadline-Aware (PayDA) scheduling approach and compare its performance regarding the compliance for deadlines with those of other common packet scheduling mechanisms. The performance analysis is done with the complex and open-source LTE simulation environment LTE-Sim. The results show that the average latency can be reduced by the factor of 20 and the mean data rates can be enhanced by a factor of about 3.5 for a high miscellaneous data traffic. In the case of a heavy homogeneous and time-critical data traffic the mean Deadline-Miss-Ratio (DMR) can be decreased by about 35%.