Optimization of Vehicle Connections in V2V-based Cooperative Localization

Macheng Shen, Jing Sun, Ding Zhao

Cooperative map matching (CMM) uses the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning of a group of vehicles to improve the standalone localization accuracy. It has been shown to reduce GNSS error from several meters to sub-meter level by matching the biased GNSS positioning of four vehicles to a digital map with road constraints in our previous work. While further error reduction is expected by increasing the number of participating vehicles, fundamental questions on how the vehicle membership of the CMM affects the performance of the GNSS-based localization results need to be addressed to provide guidelines for design and optimization of the vehicle network. The quantitative relationship between the estimation error and the road constraints has to be systematically investigated to provide insights. In this work, a theoretical study is presented that aims at developing a framework for quantitatively evaluating effects of the road constraints on the CMM accuracy and for eventual optimization of the CMM network. More specifically, a closed form expression of the CMM error in terms of the road angles and GNSS error is first derived based on a simple CMM rule. Then a Branch and Bound algorithm and a Cross Entropy method are developed to minimize this error by selecting the optimal group of vehicles under two different assumptions about the GNSS error variance.

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