On the Combinatorial Power of the Weisfeiler-Lehman Algorithm

Martin Fürer

The classical Weisfeiler-Lehman method WL[2] uses edge colors to produce a powerful graph invariant. It is at least as powerful in its ability to distinguish non-isomorphic graphs as the most prominent algebraic graph invariants. It determines not only the spectrum of a graph, and the angles between standard basis vectors and the eigenspaces, but even the angles between projections of standard basis vectors into the eigenspaces. Here, we investigate the combinatorial power of WL[2]. For sufficiently large k, WL[k] determines all combinatorial properties of a graph. Many traditionally used combinatorial invariants are determined by WL[k] for small k. We focus on two fundamental invariants, the num- ber of cycles Cp of length p, and the number of cliques Kp of size p. We show that WL[2] determines the number of cycles of lengths up to 6, but not those of length 8. Also, WL[2] does not determine the number of 4-cliques.

Knowledge Graph



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