On some interesting ternary formulas

Pascal Ochem, Matthieu Rosenfeld

We obtain the following results about the avoidance of ternary formulas. Up to renaming of the letters, the only infinite ternary words avoiding the formula $ABCAB.ABCBA.ACB.BAC$ (resp. $ABCA.BCAB.BCB.CBA$) have the same set of recurrent factors as the fixed point of $\texttt{0}\mapsto\texttt{012}$, $\texttt{1}\mapsto\texttt{02}$, $\texttt{2}\mapsto\texttt{1}$. The formula $ABAC.BACA.ABCA$ is avoided by polynomially many binary words and there exist arbitrarily many infinite binary words with different sets of recurrent factors that avoid it. If every variable of a ternary formula appears at least twice in the same fragment, then the formula is $3$-avoidable. The pattern $ABACADABCA$ is unavoidable for the class of $C_4$-minor-free graphs with maximum degree~$3$. This disproves a conjecture of Grytczuk. The formula $ABCA.ACBA$, or equivalently the palindromic pattern $ABCADACBA$, has avoidability index $4$.

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