Beta-Beta Bounds: Finite-Blocklength Analog of the Golden Formula

Wei Yang, Austin Collins, Giuseppe Durisi, Yury Polyanskiy, H. Vincent Poor

It is well known that the mutual information between two random variables can be expressed as the difference of two relative entropies that depend on an auxiliary distribution, a relation sometimes referred to as the golden formula. This paper is concerned with a finite-blocklength extension of this relation. This extension consists of two elements: 1) a finite-blocklength channel-coding converse bound by Polyanskiy and Verd\'{u} (2014), which involves the ratio of two Neyman-Pearson $\beta$ functions (beta-beta converse bound); and 2) a novel beta-beta channel-coding achievability bound, expressed again as the ratio of two Neyman-Pearson $\beta$ functions. To demonstrate the usefulness of this finite-blocklength extension of the golden formula, the beta-beta achievability and converse bounds are used to obtain a finite-blocklength extension of Verd\'{u}'s (2002) wideband-slope approximation. The proof parallels the derivation of the latter, with the beta-beta bounds used in place of the golden formula. The beta-beta (achievability) bound is also shown to be useful in cases where the capacity-achieving output distribution is not a product distribution due to, e.g., a cost constraint or structural constraints on the codebook, such as orthogonality or constant composition. As an example, the bound is used to characterize the channel dispersion of the additive exponential-noise channel and to obtain a finite-blocklength achievability bound (the tightest to date) for multiple-input multiple-output Rayleigh-fading channels with perfect channel state information at the receiver.

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