Scalable Online Convolutional Sparse Coding

Yaqing Wang, Quanming Yao, James T. Kwok, Lionel M. Ni

Convolutional sparse coding (CSC) improves sparse coding by learning a shift-invariant dictionary from the data. However, existing CSC algorithms operate in the batch mode and are expensive, in terms of both space and time, on large datasets. In this paper, we alleviate these problems by using online learning. The key is a reformulation of the CSC objective so that convolution can be handled easily in the frequency domain and much smaller history matrices are needed. We use the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) to solve the resulting optimization problem and the ADMM subproblems have efficient closed-form solutions. Theoretical analysis shows that the learned dictionary converges to a stationary point of the optimization problem. Extensive experiments show that convergence of the proposed method is much faster and its reconstruction performance is also better. Moreover, while existing CSC algorithms can only run on a small number of images, the proposed method can handle at least ten times more images.

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