The present PhD dissertation focuses on modern random access (RA) techniques. In the first part an slot- and frame-asynchronous RA scheme adopting replicas, successive interference cancellation and combining techniques is presented and its performance analysed. The comparison of both slot-synchronous and asynchronous RA at higher layer, follows. Next, the optimization procedure, for slot-synchronous RA with irregular repetitions, is extended to the Rayleigh block fading channel. Finally, random access with multiple receivers is considered.