The Gram-Schmidt Walk: A Cure for the Banaszczyk Blues

Nikhil Bansal, Daniel Dadush, Shashwat Garg, Shachar Lovett

An important result in discrepancy due to Banaszczyk states that for any set of $n$ vectors in $\mathbb{R}^m$ of $\ell_2$ norm at most $1$ and any convex body $K$ in $\mathbb{R}^m$ of Gaussian measure at least half, there exists a $\pm 1$ combination of these vectors which lies in $5K$. This result implies the best known bounds for several problems in discrepancy. Banaszczyk's proof of this result is non-constructive and a major open problem has been to give an efficient algorithm to find such a $\pm 1$ combination of the vectors. In this paper, we resolve this question and give an efficient randomized algorithm to find a $\pm 1$ combination of the vectors which lies in $cK$ for $c>0$ an absolute constant. This leads to new efficient algorithms for several problems in discrepancy theory.

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