Adversarial Robustness: Softmax versus Openmax

Andras Rozsa, Manuel Günther, Terrance E. Boult

Deep neural networks (DNNs) provide state-of-the-art results on various tasks and are widely used in real world applications. However, it was discovered that machine learning models, including the best performing DNNs, suffer from a fundamental problem: they can unexpectedly and confidently misclassify examples formed by slightly perturbing otherwise correctly recognized inputs. Various approaches have been developed for efficiently generating these so-called adversarial examples, but those mostly rely on ascending the gradient of loss. In this paper, we introduce the novel logits optimized targeting system (LOTS) to directly manipulate deep features captured at the penultimate layer. Using LOTS, we analyze and compare the adversarial robustness of DNNs using the traditional Softmax layer with Openmax, which was designed to provide open set recognition by defining classes derived from deep representations, and is claimed to be more robust to adversarial perturbations. We demonstrate that Openmax provides less vulnerable systems than Softmax to traditional attacks, however, we show that it can be equally susceptible to more sophisticated adversarial generation techniques that directly work on deep representations.

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