Visualizing and Exploring Dynamic High-Dimensional Datasets with LION-tSNE

Andrey Boytsov, Francois Fouquet, Thomas Hartmann, Yves LeTraon

T-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (tSNE) is a popular and prize-winning approach for dimensionality reduction and visualizing high-dimensional data. However, tSNE is non-parametric: once visualization is built, tSNE is not designed to incorporate additional data into existing representation. It highly limits the applicability of tSNE to the scenarios where data are added or updated over time (like dashboards or series of data snapshots). In this paper we propose, analyze and evaluate LION-tSNE (Local Interpolation with Outlier coNtrol) - a novel approach for incorporating new data into tSNE representation. LION-tSNE is based on local interpolation in the vicinity of training data, outlier detection and a special outlier mapping algorithm. We show that LION-tSNE method is robust both to outliers and to new samples from existing clusters. We also discuss multiple possible improvements for special cases. We compare LION-tSNE to a comprehensive list of possible benchmark approaches that include multiple interpolation techniques, gradient descent for new data, and neural network approximation.

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