In the past few years, new approaches to radar signal processing have been introduced which allow the radar to perform signal detection and parameter estimation from much fewer measurements than that required by Nyquist sampling. These systems - referred to as sub-Nyquist radars - model the received signal as having finite rate of innovation and employ the Xampling framework to obtain low-rate samples of the signal. Sub-Nyquist radars exploit the fact that the target scene is sparse facilitating the use of compressed sensing (CS) methods in signal recovery. In this chapter, we review several pulse-Doppler radar systems based on these principles. Contrary to other CS-based designs, our formulations directly address the reduced-rate analog sampling in space and time, avoid a prohibitive dictionary size, and are robust to noise and clutter. We begin by introducing temporal sub-Nyquist processing for estimating the target locations using less bandwidth than conventional systems. This paves the way to cognitive radars which share their transmit spectrum with other communication services, thereby providing a robust solution for coexistence in spectrally crowded environments. Next, without impairing Doppler resolution, we reduce the dwell time by transmitting interleaved radar pulses in a scarce manner within a coherent processing interval or "slow time". Then, we consider multiple-input-multiple-output array radars and demonstrate spatial sub-Nyquist processing which allows the use of few antenna elements without degradation in angular resolution. Finally, we demonstrate application of sub-Nyquist and cognitive radars to imaging systems such as synthetic aperture radar. For each setting, we present a state-of-the-art hardware prototype designed to demonstrate the real-time feasibility of sub-Nyquist radars.