Entropy in Quantum Information Theory -- Communication and Cryptography

Christian Majenz

In this Thesis, several results in quantum information theory are collected, most of which use entropy as the main mathematical tool. *While a direct generalization of the Shannon entropy to density matrices, the von Neumann entropy behaves differently. A long-standing open question is, whether there are quantum analogues of unconstrained non-Shannon type inequalities. Here, a new constrained non-von-Neumann type inequality is proven, a step towards a conjectured unconstrained inequality by Linden and Winter. *IID quantum state merging can be optimally achieved using the decoupling technique. The one-shot results by Berta et al. and Anshu at al., however, had to bring in additional mathematical machinery. We introduce a natural generalized decoupling paradigm, catalytic decoupling, that can reproduce the aforementioned results when used analogously to the application of standard decoupling in the asymptotic case. *Port based teleportation, a variant of standard quantum teleportation protocol, cannot be implemented perfectly. We prove several lower bounds on the necessary number of output ports N to achieve port based teleportation for given error and input dimension, showing that N diverges uniformly in the dimension of the teleported quantum system, for vanishing error. As a byproduct, a new lower bound for the size of the program register for an approximate universal programmable quantum processor is derived. *In the last part, we give a new definition for information-theoretic quantum non-malleability, strengthening the previous definition by Ambainis et al. We show that quantum non-malleability implies secrecy, analogous to quantum authentication. Furthermore, non-malleable encryption schemes can be used as a primitive to build authenticating encryption schemes. We also show that the strong notion of authentication recently proposed by Garg et al. can be fulfilled using 2-designs.

Knowledge Graph



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