Understand, Compose and Respond - Answering Visual Questions by a Composition of Abstract Procedures

Ben Zion Vatashsky, Shimon Ullman

An image related question defines a specific visual task that is required in order to produce an appropriate answer. The answer may depend on a minor detail in the image and require complex reasoning and use of prior knowledge. When humans perform this task, they are able to do it in a flexible and robust manner, integrating modularly any novel visual capability with diverse options for various elaborations of the task. In contrast, current approaches to solve this problem by a machine are based on casting the problem as an end-to-end learning problem, which lacks such abilities. We present a different approach, inspired by the aforementioned human capabilities. The approach is based on the compositional structure of the question. The underlying idea is that a question has an abstract representation based on its structure, which is compositional in nature. The question can consequently be answered by a composition of procedures corresponding to its substructures. The basic elements of the representation are logical patterns, which are put together to represent the question. These patterns include a parametric representation for object classes, properties and relations. Each basic pattern is mapped into a basic procedure that includes meaningful visual tasks, and the patterns are composed to produce the overall answering procedure. The UnCoRd (Understand Compose and Respond) system, based on this approach, integrates existing detection and classification schemes for a set of object classes, properties and relations. These schemes are incorporated in a modular manner, providing elaborated answers and corrections for negative answers. In addition, an external knowledge base is queried for required common-knowledge. We performed a qualitative analysis of the system, which demonstrates its representation capabilities and provide suggestions for future developments.

Knowledge Graph



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