Efficient and High-Quality Seeded Graph Matching: Employing High Order Structural Information

Haida Zhang, Zengfeng Huang, Xuemin Lin, Zhe Lin, Wenjie Zhang, Ying Zhang

Driven by many real applications, we study the problem of seeded graph matching. Given two graphs $G_1 = (V_1, E_1)$ and $G_2 = (V_2, E_2)$, and a small set $S$ of pre-matched node pairs $[u, v]$ where $u \in V_1$ and $v \in V_2$, the problem is to identify a matching between $V_1$ and $V_2$ growing from $S$, such that each pair in the matching corresponds to the same underlying entity. Recent studies on efficient and effective seeded graph matching have drawn a great deal of attention and many popular methods are largely based on exploring the similarity between local structures to identify matching pairs. While these recent techniques work well on random graphs, their accuracy is low over many real networks. Motivated by this, we propose to utilize high order neighboring information to improve the matching accuracy. As a result, a new framework of seeded graph matching is proposed, which employs Personalized PageRank (PPR) to quantify the matching score of each node pair. To further boost the matching accuracy, we propose a novel postponing strategy, which postpones the selection of pairs that have competitors with similar matching scores. We theoretically prove that the postpone strategy indeed significantly improves the matching accuracy. To improve the scalability of matching large graphs, we also propose efficient approximation techniques based on algorithms for computing PPR heavy hitters. Our comprehensive experimental studies on large-scale real datasets demonstrate that, compared with state of the art approaches, our framework not only increases the precision and recall both by a significant margin but also achieves speed-up up to more than one order of magnitude.

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