Estimators for Multivariate Information Measures in General Probability Spaces

Arman Rahimzamani, Himanshu Asnani, Pramod Viswanath, Sreeram Kannan

Information theoretic quantities play an important role in various settings in machine learning, including causality testing, structure inference in graphical models, time-series problems, feature selection as well as in providing privacy guarantees. A key quantity of interest is the mutual information and generalizations thereof, including conditional mutual information, multivariate mutual information, total correlation and directed information. While the aforementioned information quantities are well defined in arbitrary probability spaces, existing estimators add or subtract entropies (we term them $\Sigma H$ methods). These methods work only in purely discrete space or purely continuous case since entropy (or differential entropy) is well defined only in that regime. In this paper, we define a general graph divergence measure ($\mathbb{GDM}$), as a measure of incompatibility between the observed distribution and a given graphical model structure. This generalizes the aforementioned information measures and we construct a novel estimator via a coupling trick that directly estimates these multivariate information measures using the Radon-Nikodym derivative. These estimators are proven to be consistent in a general setting which includes several cases where the existing estimators fail, thus providing the only known estimators for the following settings: (1) the data has some discrete and some continuous-valued components (2) some (or all) of the components themselves are discrete-continuous mixtures (3) the data is real-valued but does not have a joint density on the entire space, rather is supported on a low-dimensional manifold. We show that our proposed estimators significantly outperform known estimators on synthetic and real datasets.

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