Conserved quantities, i.e. constants of motion, are critical for characterizing many dynamical systems in science and engineering. These quantities are related to underlying symmetries and they provide fundamental knowledge about physical laws, describe the evolution of the system, and enable system reduction. In this work, we formulate a data-driven architecture for discovering conserved quantities based on Koopman theory. The Koopman operator has emerged as a principled linear embedding of nonlinear dynamics, and its eigenfunctions establish intrinsic coordinates along which the dynamics behave linearly. Interestingly, eigenfunctions of the Koopman operator associated with vanishing eigenvalues correspond to conserved quantities of the underlying system. In this paper, we show that these invariants may be identified with data-driven regression and power series expansions, based on the infinitesimal generator of the Koopman operator. We further establish a connection between the Koopman framework, conserved quantities, and the Lie-Poisson bracket. This data-driven method for discovering conserved quantities is demonstrated on the three-dimensional rigid body equations, where we simultaneously discover the total energy and angular momentum and use these intrinsic coordinates to develop a model predictive controller to track a given reference value.