Optimization of Fast Algorithms for Global Quadrature by Expansion Using Target-Specific Expansions

Matt Wala, Andreas Klöckner

We develop an algorithm for the asymptotically fast evaluation of layer potentials close to and on the source geometry, combining Geometric Global Accelerated QBX (`GIGAQBX') and target-specific expansions. GIGAQBX is a fast high-order scheme for evaluation of layer potentials based on Quadrature by Expansion (`QBX') using local expansions formed via the Fast Multipole Method (FMM). Target-specific expansions serve to lower the cost of the formation and evaluation of QBX local expansions, reducing the associated computational effort from $O((p+1)^{2})$ to $O(p+1)$ in three dimensions, without any accuracy loss compared with conventional expansions, but with the loss of source/target separation in the expansion coefficients. GIGAQBX is a `global' QBX scheme, meaning that the potential is mediated entirely through expansions for points close to or on the boundary. In our scheme, this single global expansion is decomposed into two parts that are evaluated separately: one part incorporating near-field contributions using target-specific expansions, and one part using conventional spherical harmonic expansions of far-field contributions, noting that convergence guarantees only exist for the sum of the two sub-expansions. By contrast, target-specific expansions were originally introduced as an acceleration mechanism for `local' QBX schemes, in which the far-field does not contribute to the QBX expansion. Compared with the unmodified GIGAQBX algorithm, we show through a reproducible, time-calibrated cost model that the combined scheme yields a considerable cost reduction for the near-field evaluation part of the computation. We support the effectiveness of our scheme through numerical results demonstrating performance improvements for Laplace and Helmholtz kernels.

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