An improved exact algorithm and an NP-completeness proof for sparse matrix bipartitioning

Timon E. Knigge, Rob H. Bisseling

We formulate the sparse matrix bipartitioning problem of minimizing the communication volume in parallel sparse matrix-vector multiplication. We prove its $\mathcal{NP}$-completeness in the perfectly balanced case, where both parts of the partitioned matrix must have an equal number of nonzeros, by reduction from the graph bisection problem. We present an improved exact branch-and-bound algorithm which finds the minimum communication volume for a given maximum allowed imbalance. The algorithm is based on a maximum-flow bound and a packing bound, which extend previous matching and packing bounds. We implemented the algorithm in a new program called MP (Matrix Partitioner), which solved 839 matrices from the SuiteSparse collection to optimality, each within 24 hours of CPU-time. Furthermore, MP solved the difficult problem of the matrix cage6 in about 3 days. The new program is about 13.8 times faster than the previous program MondriaanOpt.

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