Real-time Power System State Estimation and Forecasting via Deep Neural Networks

Liang Zhang, Gang Wang, Georgios B. Giannakis

Contemporary power grids are being challenged by rapid voltage fluctuations that are caused by large-scale deployment of renewable generation, electric vehicles, and demand response programs. In this context, monitoring the grid's operating conditions in real time becomes increasingly critical. With the emergent large scale and nonconvexity however, the existing power system state estimation (PSSE) schemes become computationally expensive or yield suboptimal performance. To bypass these hurdles, this paper advocates deep neural networks (DNNs) for real-time power system monitoring. By unrolling an iterative physics-based prox-linear solver, a novel model-specific DNN is developed for real-time PSSE with affordable training and minimal tuning effort. To further enable system awareness even ahead of the time horizon, as well as to endow the DNN-based estimator with resilience, deep recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are also pursued for power system state forecasting. Deep RNNs leverage the long-term nonlinear dependencies present in the historical voltage time series to enable forecasting, and they are easy to implement. Numerical tests showcase improved performance of the proposed DNN-based estimation and forecasting approaches compared with existing alternatives. In real load data experiments on the IEEE 118-bus benchmark system, the novel model-specific DNN-based PSSE scheme outperforms nearly by an order-of-magnitude the competing alternatives, including the widely adopted Gauss-Newton PSSE solver.

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