Best of Both Worlds: Integration of Split Manufacturing and Camouflaging into a Security-Driven CAD Flow for 3D ICs

Satwik Patnaik, Mohammed Ashraf, Ozgur Sinanoglu, Johann Knechtel

With the globalization of manufacturing and supply chains, ensuring the security and trustworthiness of ICs has become an urgent challenge. Split manufacturing (SM) and layout camouflaging (LC) are promising techniques to protect the intellectual property (IP) of ICs from malicious entities during and after manufacturing (i.e., from untrusted foundries and reverse-engineering by end-users). In this paper, we strive for "the best of both worlds," that is of SM and LC. To do so, we extend both techniques towards 3D integration, an up-and-coming design and manufacturing paradigm based on stacking and interconnecting of multiple chips/dies/tiers. Initially, we review prior art and their limitations. We also put forward a novel, practical threat model of IP piracy which is in line with the business models of present-day design houses. Next, we discuss how 3D integration is a naturally strong match to combine SM and LC. We propose a security-driven CAD and manufacturing flow for face-to-face (F2F) 3D ICs, along with obfuscation of interconnects. Based on this CAD flow, we conduct comprehensive experiments on DRC-clean layouts. Strengthened by an extensive security analysis (also based on a novel attack to recover obfuscated F2F interconnects), we argue that entering the next, third dimension is eminent for effective and efficient IP protection.

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