A Spanner for the Day After

Kevin Buchin, Sariel Har-Peled, Daniel Olah

We show how to construct $(1+\varepsilon)$-spanner over a set $P$ of $n$ points in $\mathbb{R}^d$ that is resilient to a catastrophic failure of nodes. Specifically, for prescribed parameters $\vartheta,\varepsilon \in (0,1)$, the computed spanner $G$ has $ O\bigl(\varepsilon^{-c} \vartheta^{-6} n \log n (\log\log n)^6 \bigr) $ edges, where $c= O(d)$. Furthermore, for any $k$, and any deleted set $B \subseteq P$ of $k$ points, the residual graph $G \setminus B$ is $(1+\varepsilon)$-spanner for all the points of $P$ except for $(1+\vartheta)k$ of them. No previous constructions, beyond the trivial clique with $O(n^2)$ edges, were known such that only a tiny additional fraction (i.e., $\vartheta$) lose their distance preserving connectivity. Our construction works by first solving the exact problem in one dimension, and then showing a surprisingly simple and elegant construction in higher dimensions, that uses the one-dimensional construction in a black box fashion.

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