One of the main properties of biological systems is modularity, which manifests itself at all levels of their organization, starting with the level of molecular genetics, ending with the level of whole organisms and their communities. In a simplified form, these basic principles were transferred from the genetics of populations to the field of evolutionary computations, in order to solve applied optimization problems. Over almost half a century of development in this field of computer science, considerable practical experience has been gained and interesting theoretical results have been obtained. In this survey, the phenomena and patterns associated with modularity in genetics and evolutionary computations are compared. An analysis of similarities and differences in the results obtained in these areas is carried out from the modularity view point. The possibilities for knowledge transfer between the areas are discussed.