What's in a GitHub Star? Understanding Repository Starring Practices in a Social Coding Platform

Hudson Borges, Marco Tulio Valente

Besides a git-based version control system, GitHub integrates several social coding features. Particularly, GitHub users can star a repository, presumably to manifest interest or satisfaction with an open source project. However, the real and practical meaning of starring a project was never the subject of an in-depth and well-founded empirical investigation. Therefore, we provide in this paper a throughout study on the meaning, characteristics, and dynamic growth of GitHub stars. First, by surveying 791 developers, we report that three out of four developers consider the number of stars before using or contributing to a GitHub project. Then, we report a quantitative analysis on the characteristics of the top-5,000 most starred GitHub repositories. We propose four patterns to describe stars growth, which are derived after clustering the time series representing the number of stars of the studied repositories; we also reveal the perception of 115 developers about these growth patterns. To conclude, we provide a list of recommendations to open source project managers (e.g., on the importance of social media promotion) and to GitHub users and Software Engineering researchers (e.g., on the risks faced when selecting projects by GitHub stars).

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