Deeper Interpretability of Deep Networks

Tian Xu, Jiayu Zhan, Oliver G. B. Garrod, Philip H. S. Torr, Song-Chun Zhu, Robin A. A. Ince, Philippe G. Schyns

Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have been one of the most influential recent developments in computer vision, particularly for categorization. There is an increasing demand for explainable AI as these systems are deployed in the real world. However, understanding the information represented and processed in CNNs remains in most cases challenging. Within this paper, we explore the use of new information theoretic techniques developed in the field of neuroscience to enable novel understanding of how a CNN represents information. We trained a 10-layer ResNet architecture to identify 2,000 face identities from 26M images generated using a rigorously controlled 3D face rendering model that produced variations of intrinsic (i.e. face morphology, gender, age, expression and ethnicity) and extrinsic factors (i.e. 3D pose, illumination, scale and 2D translation). With our methodology, we demonstrate that unlike human's network overgeneralizes face identities even with extreme changes of face shape, but it is more sensitive to changes of texture. To understand the processing of information underlying these counterintuitive properties, we visualize the features of shape and texture that the network processes to identify faces. Then, we shed a light into the inner workings of the black box and reveal how hidden layers represent these features and whether the representations are invariant to pose. We hope that our methodology will provide an additional valuable tool for interpretability of CNNs.

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