Automatic Three-Dimensional Cephalometric Annotation System Using Three-Dimensional Convolutional Neural Networks

Sung Ho Kang, Kiwan Jeon, Hak-Jin Kim, Jin Keun Seo, Sang-Hwy Lee

Background: Three-dimensional (3D) cephalometric analysis using computerized tomography data has been rapidly adopted for dysmorphosis and anthropometry. Several different approaches to automatic 3D annotation have been proposed to overcome the limitations of traditional cephalometry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of our newly-developed system using a deep learning algorithm for automatic 3D cephalometric annotation. Methods: To overcome current technical limitations, some measures were developed to directly annotate 3D human skull data. Our deep learning-based model system mainly consisted of a 3D convolutional neural network and image data resampling. Results: The discrepancies between the referenced and predicted coordinate values in three axes and in 3D distance were calculated to evaluate system accuracy. Our new model system yielded prediction errors of 3.26, 3.18, and 4.81 mm (for three axes) and 7.61 mm (for 3D). Moreover, there was no difference among the landmarks of the three groups, including the midsagittal plane, horizontal plane, and mandible (p>0.05). Conclusion: A new 3D convolutional neural network-based automatic annotation system for 3D cephalometry was developed. The strategies used to implement the system were detailed and measurement results were evaluated for accuracy. Further development of this system is planned for full clinical application of automatic 3D cephalometric annotation.

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