Computational Decomposition of Style for Controllable and Enhanced Style Transfer

Minchao Li, Shikui Tu, Lei Xu

Neural style transfer has been demonstrated to be powerful in creating artistic image with help of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). However, there is still lack of computational analysis of perceptual components of the artistic style. Different from some early attempts which studied the style by some pre-processing or post-processing techniques, we investigate the characteristics of the style systematically based on feature map produced by CNN. First, we computationally decompose the style into basic elements using not only spectrum based methods including Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) but also latent variable models such Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Then, the decomposition of style induces various ways of controlling the style elements which could be embedded as modules in state-of-the-art style transfer algorithms. Such decomposition of style brings several advantages. It enables the computational coding of different artistic styles by our style basis with similar styles clustering together, and thus it facilitates the mixing or intervention of styles based on the style basis from more than one styles so that compound style or new style could be generated to produce styled images. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on not only painting style transfer but also sketch style transfer which indicates possible applications on picture-to-sketch problems.

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