Pointwise and uniform convergence of Fourier extensions

Marcus Webb, Vincent Coppé, Daan Huybrechs

Fourier series approximations of continuous but nonperiodic functions on an interval suffer the Gibbs phenomenon, which means there is a permanent oscillatory overshoot in the neighbourhoods of the endpoints. Fourier extensions circumvent this issue by approximating the function using a Fourier series which is periodic on a larger interval. Previous results on the convergence of Fourier extensions have focused on the error in the L2 norm, but in this paper we analyze pointwise and uniform convergence of Fourier extensions (formulated as the best approximation in the L2 norm). We show that the pointwise convergence of Fourier extensions is more similar to Legendre series than classical Fourier series. In particular, unlike classical Fourier series, Fourier extensions yield pointwise convergence at the endpoints of the interval. Similar to Legendre series, pointwise convergence at the endpoints is slower by an algebraic order of a half compared to that in the interior. The proof is conducted by an analysis of the associated Lebesgue function, and Jackson- and Bernstein-type theorems for Fourier extensions. Numerical experiments are provided. We conclude the paper with open questions regarding the regularized and oversampled least squares interpolation versions of Fourier extensions.

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