Deep Learning Inference in Facebook Data Centers: Characterization, Performance Optimizations and Hardware Implications

Jongsoo Park, Maxim Naumov, Protonu Basu, Summer Deng, Aravind Kalaiah, Daya Khudia, James Law, Parth Malani, Andrey Malevich, Satish Nadathur, Juan Pino, Martin Schatz, Alexander Sidorov, Viswanath Sivakumar, Andrew Tulloch, Xiaodong Wang, Yiming Wu, Hector Yuen, Utku Diril, Dmytro Dzhulgakov, Kim Hazelwood, Bill Jia, Yangqing Jia, Lin Qiao, Vijay Rao, Nadav Rotem, Sungjoo Yoo, Mikhail Smelyanskiy

The application of deep learning techniques resulted in remarkable improvement of machine learning models. In this paper provides detailed characterizations of deep learning models used in many Facebook social network services. We present computational characteristics of our models, describe high performance optimizations targeting existing systems, point out their limitations and make suggestions for the future general-purpose/accelerated inference hardware. Also, we highlight the need for better co-design of algorithms, numerics and computing platforms to address the challenges of workloads often run in data centers.

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