Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have achieved superior performance on object image retrieval, while Bag-of-Words (BoW) models with handcrafted local features still dominate the retrieval of overlapping images in 3D reconstruction. In this paper, we narrow down this gap by presenting an efficient CNN-based method to retrieve images with overlaps, which we refer to as the matchable image retrieval problem. Different from previous methods that generates training data based on sparse reconstruction, we create a large-scale image database with rich 3D geometrics and exploit information from surface reconstruction to obtain fine-grained training data. We propose a batched triplet-based loss function combined with mesh re-projection to effectively learn the CNN representation. The proposed method significantly accelerates the image retrieval process in 3D reconstruction and outperforms the state-of-the-art CNN-based and BoW methods for matchable image retrieval. The code and data are available at https://github.com/hlzz/mirror.