ResNets Ensemble via the Feynman-Kac Formalism to Improve Natural and Robust Accuracies

Bao Wang, Binjie Yuan, Zuoqiang Shi, Stanley J. Osher

Empirical adversarial risk minimization (EARM) is a widely used mathematical framework to robustly train deep neural nets (DNNs) that are resistant to adversarial attacks. However, both natural and robust accuracies, in classifying clean and adversarial images, respectively, of the trained robust models are far from satisfactory. In this work, we unify the theory of optimal control of transport equations with the practice of training and testing of ResNets. Based on this unified viewpoint, we propose a simple yet effective ResNets ensemble algorithm to boost the accuracy of the robustly trained model on both clean and adversarial images. The proposed algorithm consists of two components: First, we modify the base ResNets by injecting a variance specified Gaussian noise to the output of each residual mapping. Second, we average over the production of multiple jointly trained modified ResNets to get the final prediction. These two steps give an approximation to the Feynman-Kac formula for representing the solution of a transport equation with viscosity, or a convection-diffusion equation. For the CIFAR10 benchmark, this simple algorithm leads to a robust model with a natural accuracy of {\bf 85.62}\% on clean images and a robust accuracy of ${\bf 57.94 \%}$ under the 20 iterations of the IFGSM attack, which outperforms the current state-of-the-art in defending against IFGSM attack on the CIFAR10. Both natural and robust accuracies of the proposed ResNets ensemble can be improved dynamically as the building block ResNet advances. The code is available at: \url{}.

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