The goal of case-based retrieval is to assist physicians in the clinical decision making process, by finding relevant medical literature in large archives. We propose a research that aims at improving the effectiveness of case-based retrieval systems through the use of automatically created document-level semantic networks. The proposed research tackles different aspects of information systems and leverages the recent advancements in information extraction and relational learning to revisit and advance the core ideas of concept-centered hypertext models. We propose a two-step methodology that in the first step addresses the automatic creation of document-level semantic networks, then in the second step it designs methods that exploit such document representations to retrieve relevant cases from medical literature. For the automatic creation of documents' semantic networks, we design a combination of information extraction techniques and relational learning models. Mining concepts and relations from text, information extraction techniques represent the core of the document-level semantic networks' building process. On the other hand, relational learning models have the task of enriching the graph with additional connections that have not been detected by information extraction algorithms and strengthening the confidence score of extracted relations. For the retrieval of relevant medical literature, we investigate methods that are capable of comparing the documents' semantic networks in terms of structure and semantics. The automatic extraction of semantic relations from documents, and their centrality in the creation of the documents' semantic networks, represent our attempt to go one step further than previous graph-based approaches.