A Generalized Language Model in Tensor Space

Lipeng Zhang, Peng Zhang, Xindian Ma, Shuqin Gu, Zhan Su, Dawei Song

In the literature, tensors have been effectively used for capturing the context information in language models. However, the existing methods usually adopt relatively-low order tensors, which have limited expressive power in modeling language. Developing a higher-order tensor representation is challenging, in terms of deriving an effective solution and showing its generality. In this paper, we propose a language model named Tensor Space Language Model (TSLM), by utilizing tensor networks and tensor decomposition. In TSLM, we build a high-dimensional semantic space constructed by the tensor product of word vectors. Theoretically, we prove that such tensor representation is a generalization of the n-gram language model. We further show that this high-order tensor representation can be decomposed to a recursive calculation of conditional probability for language modeling. The experimental results on Penn Tree Bank (PTB) dataset and WikiText benchmark demonstrate the effectiveness of TSLM.

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