Counting of Teams in First-Order Team Logics

Anselm Haak, Juha Kontinen, Fabian Müller, Heribert Vollmer, Fan Yang

We study descriptive complexity of counting complexity classes in the range from $\#$P to $\#\cdot$NP. A corollary of Fagin's characterization of NP by existential second-order logic is that $\#$P can be logically described as the class of functions counting satisfying assignments to free relation variables in first-order formulae. In this paper we extend this study to classes beyond $\#$P and extensions of first-order logic with team semantics. These team-based logics are closely related to existential second-order logic and its fragments, hence our results also shed light on the complexity of counting for extensions of FO in Tarski's semantics. Our results show that the class $\#\cdot$NP can be logically characterized by independence logic and existential second-order logic, whereas dependence logic and inclusion logic give rise to subclasses of $\#\cdot$NP and $\#$P , respectively. Our main technical result shows that the problem of counting satisfying assignments for monotone Boolean $\Sigma_1$-formulae is $\#\cdot$NP-complete as well as complete for the function class generated by dependence logic.

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