Certified Reinforcement Learning with Logic Guidance

Mohammadhosein Hasanbeig, Alessandro Abate, Daniel Kroening

This paper proposes the first model-free Reinforcement Learning (RL) framework to synthesise policies for unknown, and continuous-state Markov Decision Processes (MDPs), such that a given linear temporal property is satisfied. We convert the given property into a Limit Deterministic Buchi Automaton (LDBA), namely a finite-state machine expressing the property. Exploiting the structure of the LDBA, we shape a synchronous reward function on-the-fly, so that an RL algorithm can synthesise a policy resulting in traces that probabilistically satisfy the linear temporal property. This probability (certificate) is also calculated in parallel with policy learning when the state space of the MDP is finite: as such, the RL algorithm produces a policy that is certified with respect to the property. Under the assumption of finite state space, theoretical guarantees are provided on the convergence of the RL algorithm to an optimal policy, maximising the above probability. We also show that our method produces ''best available'' control policies when the logical property cannot be satisfied. In the general case of a continuous state space, we propose a neural network architecture for RL and we empirically show that the algorithm finds satisfying policies, if there exist such policies. The performance of the proposed framework is evaluated via a set of numerical examples and benchmarks, where we observe an improvement of one order of magnitude in the number of iterations required for the policy synthesis, compared to existing approaches whenever available.

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