This paper studies the problem of user association, scheduling and channel allocation in dense cellular networks with energy harvesting base stations (EBSs). In this problem, the EBSs are powered solely by renewable energy and each user has a request for downloading data of certain size with a deadline constraint. The objective is to maximize the number of associated and scheduled users while allocating the available channels to the users and respecting the energy and deadline constraints. First, the computational complexity of this problem is characterized by studying its NP-hardness in different cases. Next, efficient algorithms are proposed in each case. The case of a single channel and a single EBS is solved using two polynomial-time optimal algorithms---one for arbitrary deadlines and a less-complex one for common deadlines. The case of a single channel and multiple EBSs is solved by proposing an efficient constant-factor approximation algorithm. The case of multiple channels is efficiently solved using a heuristic algorithm. Finally, our theoretical analysis is supplemented by simulation results to illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithms.