External Labeling Techniques: A Taxonomy and Survey

Michael A. Bekos, Benjamin Niedermann, Martin Nöllenburg

External labeling is frequently used for annotating features in graphical displays and visualizations, such as technical illustrations, anatomical drawings, or maps, with textual information. Such a labeling connects features within an illustration by thin leader lines with their labels, which are placed in the empty space surrounding the image. Over the last twenty years, a large body of literature in diverse areas of computer science has been published that investigates many different aspects, models, and algorithms for automatically placing external labels for a given set of features. This state-of-the-art report introduces a first unified taxonomy for categorizing the different results in the literature and then presents a comprehensive survey of the state of the art, a sketch of the most relevant algorithmic techniques for external labeling algorithms, as well as a list of open research challenges in this multidisciplinary research field.

Knowledge Graph



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