This work summarizes the results of the largest skin image analysis challenge in the world, hosted by the International Skin Imaging Collaboration (ISIC), a global partnership that has organized the world's largest public repository of dermoscopic images of skin. The challenge was hosted in 2018 at the Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI) conference in Granada, Spain. The dataset included over 12,500 images across 3 tasks. 900 users registered for data download, 115 submitted to the lesion segmentation task, 25 submitted to the lesion attribute detection task, and 159 submitted to the disease classification task. Novel evaluation protocols were established, including a new test for segmentation algorithm performance, and a test for algorithm ability to generalize. Results show that top segmentation algorithms still fail on over 10% of images on average, and algorithms with equal performance on test data can have different abilities to generalize. This is an important consideration for agencies regulating the growing set of machine learning tools in the healthcare domain, and sets a new standard for future public challenges in healthcare.