Efficient Codebook and Factorization for Second Order Representation Learning

Pierre Jacob, David Picard, Aymeric Histace, Edouard Klein

Learning rich and compact representations is an open topic in many fields such as object recognition or image retrieval. Deep neural networks have made a major breakthrough during the last few years for these tasks but their representations are not necessary as rich as needed nor as compact as expected. To build richer representations, high order statistics have been exploited and have shown excellent performances, but they produce higher dimensional features. While this drawback has been partially addressed with factorization schemes, the original compactness of first order models has never been retrieved, or at the cost of a strong performance decrease. Our method, by jointly integrating codebook strategy to factorization scheme, is able to produce compact representations while keeping the second order performances with few additional parameters. This formulation leads to state-of-the-art results on three image retrieval datasets.

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