The Secrets of Machine Learning: Ten Things You Wish You Had Known Earlier to be More Effective at Data Analysis

Cynthia Rudin, David Carlson

Despite the widespread usage of machine learning throughout organizations, there are some key principles that are commonly missed. In particular: 1) There are at least four main families for supervised learning: logical modeling methods, linear combination methods, case-based reasoning methods, and iterative summarization methods. 2) For many application domains, almost all machine learning methods perform similarly (with some caveats). Deep learning methods, which are the leading technique for computer vision problems, do not maintain an edge over other methods for most problems (and there are reasons why). 3) Neural networks are hard to train and weird stuff often happens when you try to train them. 4) If you don't use an interpretable model, you can make bad mistakes. 5) Explanations can be misleading and you can't trust them. 6) You can pretty much always find an accurate-yet-interpretable model, even for deep neural networks. 7) Special properties such as decision making or robustness must be built in, they don't happen on their own. 8) Causal inference is different than prediction (correlation is not causation). 9) There is a method to the madness of deep neural architectures, but not always. 10) It is a myth that artificial intelligence can do anything.

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