Quantum Distributed Algorithm for the All-Pairs Shortest Path Problem in the CONGEST-CLIQUE Model

Taisuke Izumi, François Le Gall

The All-Pairs Shortest Path problem (APSP) is one of the most central problems in distributed computation. In the CONGEST-CLIQUE model, in which $n$ nodes communicate with each other over a fully connected network by exchanging messages of $O(\log n)$ bits in synchronous rounds, the best known general algorithm for APSP uses $\tilde O(n^{1/3})$ rounds. Breaking this barrier is a fundamental challenge in distributed graph algorithms. In this paper we investigate for the first time quantum distributed algorithms in the CONGEST-CLIQUE model, where nodes can exchange messages of $O(\log n)$ quantum bits, and show that this barrier can be broken: we construct a $\tilde O(n^{1/4})$-round quantum distributed algorithm for the APSP over directed graphs with polynomial weights in the CONGEST-CLIQUE model. This speedup in the quantum setting contrasts with the case of the standard CONGEST model, for which Elkin et al. (PODC 2014) showed that quantum communication does not offer significant advantages over classical communication. Our quantum algorithm is based on a relationship discovered by Vassilevska Williams and Williams (JACM 2018) between the APSP and the detection of negative triangles in a graph. The quantum part of our algorithm exploits the framework for quantum distributed search recently developed by Le Gall and Magniez (PODC 2018). Our main technical contribution is a method showing how to implement multiple quantum searches (one for each edge in the graph) in parallel without introducing congestions.

Knowledge Graph

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