Second-order Co-occurrence Sensitivity of Skip-Gram with Negative Sampling

Dominik Schlechtweg, Cennet Oguz, Sabine Schulte im Walde

We simulate first- and second-order context overlap and show that Skip-Gram with Negative Sampling is similar to Singular Value Decomposition in capturing second-order co-occurrence information, while Pointwise Mutual Information is agnostic to it. We support the results with an empirical study finding that the models react differently when provided with additional second-order information. Our findings reveal a basic property of Skip-Gram with Negative Sampling and point towards an explanation of its success on a variety of tasks.

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