Big Ramsey degrees of 3-uniform hypergraphs

Martin Balko, David Chodounský, Jan Hubička, Matěj Konečný, Lluis Vena

Given a countably infinite hypergraph $\mathcal R$ and a finite hypergraph $\mathcal A$, the big Ramsey degree of $\mathcal A$ in $\mathcal R$ is the least number $L$ such that, for every finite $k$ and every $k$-colouring of the embeddings of $\mathcal A$ to $\mathcal R$, there exists an embedding $f$ from $\mathcal R$ to $\mathcal R$ such that all the embeddings of $\mathcal A$ to the image $f(\mathcal R)$ have at most $L$ different colours. We describe the big Ramsey degrees of the random countably infinite 3-uniform hypergraph, thereby solving a question of Sauer. We also give a new presentation of the results of Devlin and Sauer on, respectively, big Ramsey degrees of the order of the rationals and the countably infinite random graph. Our techniques generalise (in a natural way) to relational structures and give new examples of Ramsey structures (a concept recently introduced by Zucker with applications to topological dynamics).

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