From Fully Supervised to Zero Shot Settings for Twitter Hashtag Recommendation

Abhay Kumar, Nishant Jain, Suraj Tripathi, Chirag Singh

We propose a comprehensive end-to-end pipeline for Twitter hashtags recommendation system including data collection, supervised training setting and zero shot training setting. In the supervised training setting, we have proposed and compared the performance of various deep learning architectures, namely Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) and Transformer Network. However, it is not feasible to collect data for all possible hashtag labels and train a classifier model on them. To overcome this limitation, we propose a Zero Shot Learning (ZSL) paradigm for predicting unseen hashtag labels by learning the relationship between the semantic space of tweets and the embedding space of hashtag labels. We evaluated various state-of-the-art ZSL methods like Convex combination of Semantic Embedding (ConSE), Embarrassingly Simple Zero-Shot Learning (ESZSL) and Deep Embedding Model for Zero-Shot Learning (DEM-ZSL) for the hashtag recommendation task. We demonstrate the effectiveness and scalability of ZSL methods for the recommendation of unseen hashtags. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative evaluation of ZSL methods to date for unseen hashtags recommendations from tweet text.

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