DCEF: Deep Collaborative Encoder Framework for Unsupervised Clustering

Jielei Chu, Hongjun Wang, Jing Liu, Zeng Yu, Tianrui Li

Collaborative representation is a popular feature learning approach, which encoding process is assisted by variety types of information. In this paper, we propose a collaborative representation restricted Boltzmann Machine (CRRBM) for modeling binary data and a collaborative representation Gaussian restricted Boltzmann Machine (CRGRBM) for modeling realvalued data by applying a collaborative representation strategy in the encoding procedure. We utilize Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH) to generate similar sample subsets of the instance and observed feature set simultaneously from input data. Hence, we can obtain some mini blocks, which come from the intersection of instance and observed feature subsets. Then we integrate Contrastive Divergence and Bregman Divergence methods with mini blocks to optimize our CRRBM and CRGRBM models. In their training process, the complex collaborative relationships between multiple instances and features are fused into the hidden layer encoding. Hence, these encodings have dual characteristics of concealment and cooperation. Here, we develop two deep collaborative encoder frameworks (DCEF) based on the CRRBM and CRGRBM models: one is a DCEF with Gaussian linear visible units (GDCEF) for modeling real-valued data, and the other is a DCEF with binary visible units (BDCEF) for modeling binary data. We explore the collaborative representation capability of the hidden features in every layer of the GDCEF and BDCEF framework, especially in the deepest hidden layer. The experimental results show that the GDCEF and BDCEF frameworks have more outstanding performances than the classic Autoencoder framework for unsupervised clustering task on the MSRA-MM2.0 and UCI datasets, respectively.

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